10;again, this reveals a design tailored for individual, not group-wide, returns. Fehr,., Gächter,. The problem for theories of group selected adaptations is that the preponderance of the evidence suggests that it simply hasn't done. Thanks first to Williams 2 and then to Richard Dawkins 3, the concept of average effects became popularized as "the gene's eye view of evolution" and the gene was called "the fundamental unit of selection". In no way did they act like soldier ants, willingly marching off to doom for the benefit of the group. All the genes in an individual lion share the same exit route to the future the sperms or eggs of their shared body. Mesoudi A (2011) Cultural Evolution: How Darwinian Theory Can Explain Human Culture Synthesize the Social Sciences (University of Chicago Press, Chicago) p xv 264. As Figure 1 shows, the variation between-camps was much larger than the variation within camps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107 (supplement.
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In the case of the dam, the cascade reaches out beyond the body wallvia genetic influences on building behaviourto an inanimate object built of logs, sticks and mud. Henrich, Friendship, Cliquishness, and the Emergence of Cooperation. Also, there is interpretive choice in whether one considers the functional phenotype as "really" existing at the individual level (which it must to initiate the feedback pathway or as "really" existing at the group level (which it must to complete the feedback pathwayeventually, multiplying gene. Evolution can produce good behavior towards others! . Quantitative genetics, inclusive fitness, and group selection. To be clear, the model tracks an allele frequency, but the MLS formulation naturally exposes the inter-group dynamics in a convenient and intuitive manner. Hence, immigrants, especially immigrant children, typically assimilate to the groups they or their parents join without appreciably diluting their host cultures. Perhaps the reason why Pinker finds it hard to recognize this is that intelligent design is commonly associated with supernatural theories of creation that have no place in science. However, it is clear that the development of tools, weapons, and cultural objects required cultural norms promoting cooperation. It is also unclear, therefore, why we would expect a biological group selection theory to make any predictions that are not already made by an individual-level theory.
This behavior cannot be explained by the selfish gene model. Human social groups are psychologically very salient entities (8)as Pinker acknowledges. Unlike their predecessors, these researchers had studied the cultural evolutionary models of cooperation, and understood the potential importance of population structure and networks. Later I'll explain why I think the models are unhelpful in understanding human psychology, but first I need to spend a bit more time picking apart the dust bunny.